TNG Glossary

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The following is a Glossary of terms as used in TNG relating to genealogy, computing and archival organisation. The Glossary uses the titles of terms as they are displayed in TNG so as to facilitate . Definitions indicate where they differ from typical use and any possible confusions due to similar terms in other software and contexts.

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


See Website Administrator.
An Album in TNG is a grouping of Media. An Album can include any number of Media, and any particular Media item can belong to multiple Albums. Like individual Media, Albums can be linked to People, Families, Sources, Repositories or Places. More details.
Anonymous Visitor(s)
See Guests.
An Association is a record of a relationship between two People in your database that may not be obvious from the regular tree structure of your genealogy. In fact, two People who are linked in an Association may not be related at all. More details.


In genealogy, a branch refers to two very different groups of relatives.
An ancestral branch is a line of relatives diverging backward in time from a Lineal Ancestor. For example, your Mother's Mother is the start of an ancestral branch of your family which blossoms backward in time.
A descendant branch is a line of relatives diverging forward in time from a Collateral Ancestor. For example, your Aunt and her descendants form one of the descendant branches of your family which blossom forward in time.
Branch is a specific TNG term for to a set of Individuals within a Tree that all share a common label. This label allows the administrator to restrict access to these labeled Individuals based on user permissions. More details.
A backup is a common computing term for copy of a file, directory, or database on a separate storage device. The TNG installation files provide a backup of your original install and a method to backup your database. Your hosting service may provide a backup of your site. You can also FTP all files, directories, including the TNG database backup directory to your computer as a full backup. More details.


Cemeteries in TNG are Places best understood as a special category of Repository as they can provide valuable Sources by their registers and Headstones. They are treated as special because they form the emotional focus for remembrance of an individual or family regardless of any actual remains or record. More details.
In TNG, a citation is a reference to a previously defined source which provides evidence about some aspect of an individual's record, for example, where you derived the date and place of their birth. More Details
The same source can be cited multiple times. For example, a single source such as a death certificate can provide multiple pieces of evidence, such as a person's name, the date and place of death, the cause of death, and the age at death.
Collateral Ancestor
A collateral ancestor is a brother or sister of a Lineal Ancestor. For example, your GrandMother's brother - your GrandUncle - is one of your collateral ancestors. He is related to you because you both descended from your GrandMother's parents; but you did not 'descend' from your GrandUncle, that is, you are not one of his GrandChildren.
Collateral Descendant
A collateral descendant is a descendant of a Collateral Ancestor. For example, your Uncle is a collateral ancestor; so his children - your cousins - are collateral descendants.
Each collateral ancestor who has a child is the founder of a separate descendant Branch on your family tree.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML. See CSS Syntax Reference for additional details.
In principle, Cascading Style Sheets do for HTML what styles do for word processors. They allow you to define styles (e.g., for typography and page layout) that will be followed throughout a page or throughout a web site. They achieve the goal of separating style from structure and may also reduce the amount of code in the file. Like the styles of a wordprocessor, they promote consistency across a project, and they make universal changes across a project easier because only the style needs to be changed to affect all pages linked to it.


Data Protection
Data Protection means having a complete data backup and recovery plan for all the content of your TNG site, your files, your configurations, your customizations, and your MySQL database, both the database structure and database table content. See the Category Data Protection for additional articles.
A date records the calendar day on which an event took place (for example, 5 Jun 1987), or the series of sequential days over which an ongoing event or condition occurred (for example, FROM 3 Apr 1901 TO 31 Mar 1911). In TNG, uncertain dates may be qualified by the addition of date modifiers (for example, BEF 1835).
See Dates for more details.
See Inputting Dates - Eingabemoeglichkeiten on guidelines for inputting dates in a multi-language environment.
Default Photo
TNG provides the capability to make one of the photos associated with a person or family, the default photo, which is used on the individual page, family group sheet, and charts associated with the person or family name. More details
Documents is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. Documents allows you to associate documents to a Person or Family in TNG.
Dynamic Web Page
Unlike a static web page that physically exists on the website and never changes, a dynamic page is created by scripting on the server or in a browser, and it only exists for the period of time it is being used. When the browser finishes, the page is removed from memory and no longer exists. TNG uses dynamic web pages.


In genealogy: a significant happening, occurring at a specific time and place, that can be used to differentiate one's ancestors or descendants from non-relatives. Of particular interest are dates and places of birth, baptism, wedding, death, and burial.


In genealogy: traditionally, a social unit made up of a legally married couple and their registered children, allowing researchers to trace their ancestry through documents related to the marriage. Many variations exist in this pattern…
Family ID
The Family ID in TNG must be unique within the selected Tree and should consist of an upper case F followed by a number
File Transfer
Because TNG is installed on a Web Host, installing and modifying TNG involves moving files between a person’s home computer and the web host's computer. Systems such as FTP and SSH have been developed to accomplish this file transfer securely. See File Transfer for more details.
FTP stands for file transfer protocol, is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol. See the FTP article and the FileZilla - FTP Client for a free client that can be used on multiple platforms.


GEDCOM, an acronym for GEnealogical Data COMmunication, is a de facto specification for exchanging genealogical data between different genealogy software.
See GEDCOM for additional details.
See Import_Data for an approach to importing GEDCOM data.
See Setup Tree for option on preventing anonymous GEDCOM downloads.
Geocoding is the process of coding a latitude and longitude that then allows the display of Google Maps in TNG. The TNG Admin interface to Places provides a geocoding capability see Google Maps - Geocoding Places for more details.
(Also referred to as Anonymous Visitors). Anyone able to access a TNG website. See Users and Guests for more details.
Guest is also one of the roles assigned to the User Record by the TNG Administrator that can be used to grant access to a specific branch within the tree to view information on living individuals for example, but not allow editing of information. See User Roles for more details.


Headstone is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. Headstone allows you to associate headstone or gravestone photos to a person or family in TNG that can also then be associated to a TNG Cemeteries record.
History is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. History allows you to create media records that provide a historical narrative. See Histories - Creating for the various ways you can create histories within TNG.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the predominant markup language for web pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks needed by a browser to display a webpage. For a comprehensive article on this subject, see Wikipedia - HTML. Additional details may be found at HTML Intro and HTML Reference on the w3schools website.


Image Map
In HTML and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to various destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination). For example, in TNG you can use the Image Map section of Add or Edit Media record to create a link for an individual in a group photo to that individual's page within your TNG site. See Image Map for an example of how image maps are created in conjunction with the Tooltip Mod
To bring external files or links into TNG. This can refer to GEDCOM data or Media.
Commonly refers to a unique subject of study in genealogy or a unique entry in database such as TNG. Note that due to lack of evidence or error more than one Individual may refer to the same person.


Lineal Ancestor
A lineal ancestor or relative is a direct ancestor - parent, grandparent, great grandparent, and so on back in time. Each lineal ancestor is a founder of an ancestral Branch on your family tree. Often the female ancestral branches become more difficult to research as you go back in time because their surname was not recorded in earlier birth, marriage, and death records.


Representation of geographical data which in TNG refers specifically to geo-referencing of Places managed through TNG Administration backend. Places associated with a database entry (Individual, Cemetery's etc.) are automatically displayed on the relevant page. For Individuals several Events are displayed on the same Event Map. Another common use of the term by TNG users is the Image Map used in Media records.
Media in TNG is a general term for files not directly stored in the TNG database. It is primarily used to refer to images, whether photos or scanned documents.
Media Collection
A Media Collection in TNG refers to a type of Media. TNG's standard collections are Photos, Documents, Headstones, Histories, Recordings, and Videos. TNG also allows you to create your own media collections. A collection is not restricted to a single file type. For example, .jpg images can be part of any collection, not just Photos or Documents, and the Photos collection does not have to contain only image files. More details
Merge in TNG means to combine records. In TNG, you can combine or merge People, Places, Repositories, or Sources. Note that if you use a gedcom import to replace your data, then merges made in TNG will be lost next time you do an Import.
Mobile Mode
TNG V10 added the automatic detection that it was being used on a mobile devices. It automatically sets the $sitever to mobile on smart phones and adjusts some of the displays. It automatically sets the $sitever to tablet for tablets but the displays continue to be in standard mode. Some mods like the Census Plus International mod reduce the size of the census transcript display when on a tablet so that the tables fit within the screen width.
Mod Manager
The Mod Manager (an administrative control built into TNG from v8 onwards) is a facility which provides an integrated way to install/remove and manage modifications (mods) to a TNG site installation using config files that have been coded according to its syntax rules. More details
A TNG Mod is small bit of code packaged together into a configuration file, using the filename extension .cfg, that manages all the changes of code needed to implement the particular modification. Simply copy the .cfg file into the mods directory and the Mod Manager will see it is available to be installed if the file is correctly coded for the version of TNG currently used in the site. If so, it takes just two clicks to install the Mod and just two clicks to uninstall it if needed. There may be instances where other small changes need to be completed either before or after the installation of a Mod.




Person ID
The Person ID in TNG must be unique within the selected Tree and should consist of an upper case I followed by a number
PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module that generates the web page document. For a comprehensive article on this subject, see Wikipedia-PHP.
See PHP net for additional details.
Photos is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. Photos allows you to associate photos to a Person or Family in TNG.
Place in TNG is the location where an event occurred. Places - Merging provides examples of using a wild card to select places to be merged.


Recordings is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. Recordings allows you to associate audio recordings to a Person or Family in TNG.
Registered User(s)
See formal definition of User(s).
A TNG Report is a custom-built listing of people contained in your TNG database. Using the report builder you select which fields to display, which people to put in the report, and how to sort them.
Optionally, a TNG Report can also use a raw mySQL SELECT statement to extract any data contained within a TNG database. For example, you could create a report giving the ID# of each record containing a citation of a certain source. The language of a mySQL statement can become quite convoluted and requires some studying before its full power can be realized. There are a number of examples to be found via a TNG Wiki search on the word "report". See Reports or Category:Reports for more details.
A Repository is any collection of sources, physical or otherwise. TNG will automatically build the Repositories from the gedcom data import if they exist in your desktop software and are exported. More details
Restore is the act of returning something to its original or usable and functioning condition. TNG provides the capability to restore your database from the backup tables in your TNG backup directory. More details


See the various articles in the Setup category in the left sidebar.
In TNG a source is defined as any form of evidence cited to prove or substantiate any part of your data. The same source may be cited multiple times for multiple individuals, families or events. More Details
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a database computer language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). See Wikipedia article on SQL for history and W3school for tutorial on SQL.
SQL (pronounced either S-Q-L or "sequel") is a powerful database query language. It has been around for decades in numerous versions and editions on many platforms. If you learn one version well, you can probably move to another with ease. The TNG database is a MySQL database. MySQL (my-S-Q-L or "my sequel") is an open source relational database manager now owned by Oracle.
SSH or Secure Shell is a system of secure file transfer over the Internet using encryption. See File Transfer for more details.


TNG v10 automatically detects that it is running on a tablet and set the $sitever to tablet. The display continues to be in standard mode, but some mods like the Census Plus International mod reduce the size of the census transcript display when on a tablet so that the tables fit within the screen width. SeeTuning for Tablet Display
See Timeline - Setup
A Tree in TNG is a container for any independent set of family data. TNG allows you to support multiple Trees on your site, but since Trees are independent, you cannot link a person in one tree to any person or family in another tree. See Setup - Tree for more details on setting up a tree.
Tree ID
The Tree ID in TNG is a short, unique, one-word identifier for the tree. Do not include non-alphanumeric characters (stick to numbers and letters), and do not use spaces.
Tree Name
The Tree Name in TNG is a short display name or phrase to identify this tree. This will appear in all tree selection boxes, and will be the name by which visitors know this tree.


UTF-8 stands for Unicode Transformation Format-8. It is an octet (8-bit) lossless encoding of Unicode characters. See UTF-8 for more details on the UTF-8 character encoding.
Formal TNG definition: Those persons approved by a website administrator to assist with the entry and maintenance of the data displayed on a TNG website. See Users and Guests for more details.
Beware! - in some TNG-related literature the term user is simply a programmer's generic term for anyone using a program as in "be kind to inexperienced users", which could refer equally well to a TNG user or to a TNG guest.


Videos is one of the media collections or categories in TNG. Videos allows you to associate video clips to a Person or Family in TNG.
See Guest(s).


Website Administrator
TNG defines a website administrator as the primary user: the person who maintains a TNG website and has full access to all its components. Generally, the main website administrator is the person who bought and setup the TNG components in the first place. This administrator normally approves those who request login access and assigns certain rights to them. A TNG website can thereby have multiple administrators, if desired. Such administrators ("admins") have access to the Admin Home page, which displays a variety of administrative controls, as determined by their assigned rights.
Web Host(ing)
Web hosting is any arrangement that makes files accessible on the Internet. In general, a web host refers to an organization or company that provide this service. See Web Host for more details.